This is a common scenario.
We are working in a company with many software developers and every developer is using the IDE of his preference.
So let’s say that we are working on the same web application but we want to be able to deploy the application from the command line without the need of knowing how to setup an application server inside a specific IDE.
For this purpose a well known maven plugin can offer us a great solution.
The plugin is called Tomcat Maven Plugin.

First I must say that I am using a Mac.
The easiest way to run Tomcat on Mac is by using The Homebrew package manager.
Homebrew is an excellent package manager that installs a specific application for you in a local folder and you can be sure that no application installation procedure will mess up again your files and your system settings.
The installation of Homebrew can be done from the terminal command and it is this line:

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL"

After that to install the latest version of Tomcat (Tomcat 8.0.15) we have just to give the following command on the Mac OS Terminal:

brew install Tomcat

With the above procedure Homebrew installs Tomcat at /usr/local/Cellar directory.
Now create a symlink so that you can more easily run Tomcat:

sudo ln -s /usr/local/Cellar/tomcat/7.0.39/libexec /Library/Tomcat

Now change the /Library/Tomcat folder ownership by using your system username (hint: you can find it before the $ symbol in command terminal) with this code, so that this folder becomes writable :

sudo chown -R bolshchikov /Library/Tomcat

Then we execute the following command to make all the tomcat scripts (like and executable:

sudo chmod +x /Library/Tomcat/bin/*.sh

Now we can start tomcat by issuing the following command:


Now that we have our application server running we can run a maven command to create a project:

mvn archetype:generate -DgroupId={package-name} -DartifactId={project-name} -DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-webapp -DinteractiveMode=false

For our project I will use com.skiabox.webapps as the package-name and TheWebApp1 as the name of our project.
So the command that I give is the following:

mvn archetype:generate -DgroupId=com.skiabox.webapps -DartifactId=TheWebApp1 -DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-webapp -DinteractiveMode=false

You can create a project from an existing list of maven archetypes that many companies have already created for you.
For example to see the list of maven archetypes that Apache has created check this link.

The next step is to open the maven project we have just created using our favorite IDE.
In my case this IDE is IntelliJ Idea 14 Ultimate from Jetbrains.
To open an existing maven project using IntelliJ Idea the only thing you have to do is open the project’s pom.xml file.
So we use File –> Open and we choose TheWebApp1 folder.

That is what we see at this point (I have opened the pom.xml file of the project):


We change the JUnit version so that it is the latest version 4.11 and we click Enable Auto-Import when this message appearing inside IntelliJ Idea IDE.
This way IntelliJ Idea is auto importing a new version of a project as soon as we change the version number of it in the pom.xml file.
We also add another useful dependency that our project will use since we will create a servlet using only java coding.
The dependency that we should add is the following


Check that the scope is provided since our application server (Tomcat) should provide these libraries.

The next step is to add some users to our Tomcat Server installation.
So we edit the /Library/Tomcat/conf/tomcat-users.xml file and we add these lines (some of them may already exist) between the opening and closing tomcat-users tag:

<role rolename="manager"/>
<role rolename="admin"/>
<role rolename="manager-gui"/>
<role rolename="manager-script"/>
<user username="admin" password="admin" roles="admin,manager,manager-gui,manager-script"/>

We should at this stage inform maven that we have a tomcat server running so first we go to maven home directory by using the following :

cd $M2_HOME/conf

The set of the environment variable M2_HOME has become more complicated at Mac OS Yosemite so you can use this link to create a login script that sets this variable properly.

There we edit the settings.xml file and we add these lines inside the servers tag:


Now it is safe to add the Tomcat Maven Plugin details to our pom file.
We can also add manually the main/java and test/java directories since they are not created by our archetype.
Of course we can create our own archetype if we want but maybe this is a topic for another article I will do in the future.
The image of our project after all these modifications is the following:


The only thing that is left is to create an application.
We will create a simple java servlet just for the purpose of this article but in real production situations you will almost never use java code for a servlet since you can use the jsp format to create the presentation layer of your application.

So we create now a servlet file called inside src/main/java/gui (we created the package gui)
Here is the code:

package gui;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

@WebServlet(name = "/HelloWorld")
public class HelloWorld extends HttpServlet {
    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {


    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();

        out.println("<b>Hello World</b>");

And here is an image from our IDE with this code:

The web.xml is optional if we follow the Servlet 3.0 specification but if we want to use some xml and not only annotations the web.xml file must be like this :

<web-app xmlns=""
  <display-name>Archetype Created Web Application</display-name>

So the web.xml now looks like this :


Now when tomcat starts it is searching for these files in the following order :

  1. index.html
  2. index.htm
  3. index.jsp

The archetype that we used has already provided us with an index.jsp file , so we will use it to access our serlvet.
Here is how the code looks inside the IntelliJ Idea Ide :


We are nearly complete.
Start the tomcat server if you have not already done that like this :


Then change directory and go to the folder that contains our maven project and execute the deploy goal of our Tomcat Maven Plugin like this :

cd MavenProjects/TheWebApp1
mvn tomcat7:deploy

This plugin is made for Tomcat v7 but it works perfectly fine with our Tomcat v8.

At this point if you follow all the previous steps, you will get a build success result like this:

Of course we can test that our application is running by opening the following url of our application to any browser:


By using this url we get this result :


And by clicking the link we get the servlet response :


5 thoughts on “Deploy a web application from the command line by using Tomcat Maven Plugin

  1. Hello, I tried all steps but the build fails to deploy. Here is the output:

    Microsoft Windows [Version 6.2.9200]

    (c) 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

    R:Workspacecatcm>mvn tomcat7:deploy

    [INFO] Scanning for projects…


    [WARNING] Some problems were encountered while building the effective model for com.example.localnet:catcm:war:1.0

    [WARNING] ‘build.plugins.plugin.version’ for org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-compiler-plugin is missing. @ line 77, column 12


    [WARNING] It is highly recommended to fix these problems because they threaten the stability of your build.


    [WARNING] For this reason, future Maven versions might no longer support building such malformed projects.



    [INFO] ————————————————————————

    [INFO] Building CATCM 1.0

    [INFO] ————————————————————————


    [INFO] >>> tomcat7-maven-plugin:2.2:deploy (default-cli) > package @ catcm >>>

    [WARNING] The artifact com.lowagie:itext:jar:4.2.2 has been relocated to com.itextpdf:itextpdf:jar:5.5.6


    [INFO] — maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ catcm —

    [WARNING] Using platform encoding (Cp1252 actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!

    [INFO] Copying 0 resource


    [INFO] — maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ catcm —

    [INFO] Nothing to compile – all classes are up to date


    [INFO] — maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ catcm —

    [WARNING] Using platform encoding (Cp1252 actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!

    [INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory R:Workspacecatcmsrctestresources


    [INFO] — maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ catcm —

    [INFO] Nothing to compile – all classes are up to date


    [INFO] — maven-surefire-plugin:2.12.4:test (default-test) @ catcm —

    [INFO] No tests to run.


    [INFO] — maven-war-plugin:2.2:war (default-war) @ catcm —

    [INFO] Packaging webapp

    [INFO] Assembling webapp [catcm] in [R:Workspacecatcmtargetcatcm]

    [INFO] Processing war project

    [INFO] Copying webapp resources [R:Workspacecatcmsrcmainwebapp]

    [INFO] Webapp assembled in [234 msecs]

    [INFO] Building war: R:Workspacecatcmtargetcatcm.war

    [INFO] WEB-INFweb.xml already added, skipping


    [INFO] <<< tomcat7-maven-plugin:2.2:deploy (default-cli) < package @ catcm << [Help 1]


    [ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the errors, re-run Maven with the -e switch.

    [ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug logging.


    [ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible solutions, please read the following articles:

    [ERROR] [Help 1]


  2. Perfect, worked like a charm .. But why you specify tomcat7 while deploying and redeploying even though you used tomcat8.

    Is there a maven plugin as tomcat8-maven-plugin ?

  3. I followed the steps at the official doc which asks to add “dependencies” instead of configuration->server and configuration->url.

    This approach does not work for tomcat 8 because of the issue – which is unresolved at the moment.

    I’m curious to know why you added configuration->server and configuration->url when the official doc does not recommend that.

  4. Hi! I have some problems with configuration of tomcat in intellij. I saw you asked the same question in stackoverflow. The question is that the doGet method is called twice in servlet when I use intellij. I saw you solved the problem eventually but I cannot understand what you mean. Can you talk more about the detail? How do you do that?

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